# Strong Nuclear force using magnetic dipole force and energy

The Action Lab: What Does The Strong Nuclear Force Look Like? at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rx4lNihOT4U

The simplest easy model for the strong force that I found is to simply calculate the magnetic dipole force between the particles. Electrons protons neutrons each have permanent magnetic dipole moments in units of Joules/Tesla. To get the force in Newtons multiply the appropriate magnetic moments together, multiply by what is called “mu nought” or “mu0” or “the vacuum magnetic permeability” and divide by 4*pi*r^4 which is 4th power of the distance between the magnetic moments. This assume the magnets are lined up so they attract. But the force (at Wikipedia under “Magnetic dipole”) is vector, depending on the direction of the magnets each at their own location.

F = 3*muo*muA*muB/(4*pi*R^4)

I normally use the energy. If you add up (integrate) the force starting from R and take one of the particles out to infinity, that gives the energy needed to separate the particles from that distance if they are attracting each other

E = muo*muA*muB/(4*pi*R^3) in Joules

E = muo*muA*muB/(e*4*pi*R^3) in ElectronVolts where e is the electron charge.

For the electron and proton, they will bind at large distances by Coulomb attractions and the energy from the magnetic dipole interaction is small, but measurable. As you move them closer together, getting to picometer and femtometer scales, the magnetic 1/R^4 force will dominate. Two protons can bind magnetically. Two neutrons can bind magnetically. Two electrons can bind magnetically. Atomic isotopes with magnetic moments can bind. Attractive force requires angular momentum (rotation) to keep them separated.

An electron and positron (any everyday particle antiparticle pair) can bind, if they have angular momentum. The Coulomb force between their charges attracts. The magnetic force attracts if they are allowed to bind naturally (they snap together) and they usually give off strong magnetic pulses. These particle antiparticle pairs are “invisible”, meaning they do not have energy where humans can see it. They have no external charge, no external magnetic field. But they have mass, and they can interact if you collide with them. Magnetically bound particle antiparticle pairs are my favorite model for “dark matter” and their reactions for “dark energy”.

If you are looking for fusion reactions, just go to the table of isotopes in CRC Handbook and look for those with strong magnetic moment. You multiply their value by “MuN” the CoData “Nuclear Magneton” to get it into Joules/Telsa.

I found that you can make magnetic fields up to the gravitational energy density (about 380 Tesla) fairly easily now. So inducing “nuclear forces” is relatively easy and can be done on the desktop, if you have a supplier for the pico and nano scale magnetic films and structures. I wrote to Emilio Segre (antiproton Nobel prize) in late 1980 to ask about positronium spectrum. So I date my interest in these magnetic bonds to Jan 1981 when he wrote back encouraging me to keep at it.  I was studying NMR and MRI at Georgetown University and wondered what would happen if you calculated the spin-spin energy at close distances. It is “nuclear distances” and you can solve for the balancing distance where the energy matches the experimental proton-proton, proton-neutron, proton-electron, electron-positron energies. I call that the “magnetic binding distance” to go with the “magnetic binding energy”. I do not like words like “strong” or “weak:, I would rather just calculate and measure precisely, not generate excitement. When you work at things for decades, excitement and momentary pleasures will not sustain it.  I think there must be a lot of particle antiparticle pairs, but I also think the “big bang” is just a large “gluon condensation nova” that spread dense matter to create those early galaxies.

Richard Collins, The Internet Foundation

#### About: Richard K Collins

Director, The Internet Foundation Studying formation and optimized collaboration of global communities. Applying the Internet to solve global problems and build sustainable communities. Internet policies, standards and best practices.